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Home / Issues / № 6, 2018

Philological sciences

THE ROLE OF NEOLOGISMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE
Sametova F.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of neologisms and new uses selected from famous newspapers and magazines and which have rapidly become the part of Kazakh language in the first years of independence. Splash of lexical tumors led to the emergence of lexical doublets, synonyms, nonce words. Their researches let it discover what semantic and stylistic differentiation of new words and meanings is going on.

However, new words and uses, their meanings lead to the need to create special dictionaries of neologisms. The theoretical and practical studies of the Kazakh neography, their social significance and relevance and requirements for the creation of a dictionary body, its dictionary entry are considered. Also, a brief review of the conceptual provisions of neology, as well as propositions in the lexico-graphic practice is analyzed.

Keywords:  Neologism, new use, neology, dictionary.

Introduction  

Kazakhstan's independence influenced to all fields of society, including system of government and economic situation, development of scientific-educational system, political life and domestic, foreign relations, well being of Kazakhstani people - in one word it brought changes of high cultural-historical importance. Particularly its impact on the development of Kazakh language that was given the status of official language, especially its influence on the establishment of many changes and reforms in the lexicon is an indicator of close link between language and society and one of the main consistent patterns of the language.  The appearance of new phenomena and concepts in various fields like politics, legal affairs, economy, science and technology, culture and art affected the filling of Kazakh lexicon with new notions and their potential to be a part of the literary language is increasing.  

Making a long story short, establishment of different political-cultural reforms after obtaining the sovereignty influenced not only to the appearance of new concepts, new phenomena but also to the establishment of these units in the linguistic usage due to communicative requirement, emergence of many neologisms (lexical units).   This is a social activity of language that has an aim to fulfill its main function as the main tool of communication towards various changes happening in our society and it is a natural behavior of the language.

Despite the fact that neologisms have always been of great interest, systematic investigation of the neologisms in Kazakh linguistics started from the second half of the 20th century. Thus, neologisms and  problems appearing in the process of description of its types, ways and methods of formation, compliance with the norms of the literary language and etc., are considered along with the general issues of dictionary in the works of the classics of Kazakh linguistics such as: N. Sauranbayev, S. Kenesbayev, M. Balakayev, K. Akhanov, A. Bolganbayev, R. Syzdyk, B. Kaliyeva, as well as in the works of more recent linguists that deal with the issues of Kazakh neology such as:  M Orazova, A.N. Uali, Sh. Kurmanbay, A.K. Zhumabekova and others.

Results

Therefore we consider the appearance of many neologisms in the period of independence as a common phenomenon for all languages of multinational Kazakhstan and active conduction of neological investigations in the Kazakh language in comparison with other languages, factors of formation of new lexical units due to official status of Kazakh language cause a special interest and lots of attention of the researchers. Speaking on the acquisition of a new meaning of some words in Kazakh language and the appearance of many neologisms in an initial period of independence, we would like to mention that the emergence of great opportunity in the past 50 years for the enrichment of Kazakh lexicon with neologisms can be considered as "lexical explosion". In this turn, the results of research on materials given by mass media tools, which is always abreast of changes happening in our world, shows the appearance of various characteristics and trends peculiar to the process of lexical innovation within the initial period of independence.

Neologisms, as well as new uses appear in our language and the number of potential words and nonce units in terms of development potential is increasing.   In connection with this investigation of new lexical units' role, function, stylistic shade, Ошибка перевода.sphere of usage, systematic interrelation and mutual relation with native words of Kazakh language requires the conduction of special research.  Because we have noticed the existence of several denominations, in other words variety of alternatives, doublet words defining single notion or phenomenon. In linguistic practice, "language user", especially beginner, who is poorly aware of linguistic performance's features, will face with the challenge of choosing the appropriate lexical doublet corresponding to the situation. For example, in the following sentence the notion ‘passport' was given by Kazakh word "tolkuzhat": «according to recently adopted laws on independence and citizenship, every citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan must be given a special document "tolkuzhat" (passport), Ошибка перевода.I think it's right to write in the "zhekebas kuzhat" first the name of the clan to determine in a written form the clans in which marriages between themselves are not allowed, then the name of the father, and only at the very end to write the own name of the person». [1, 23.01] If we pay attention to the sentence, it is possible to notice that the word "tolkuzhat" become an important part of Kazakh lexicon after 20 years since the general usage in an initial period and in contrast parenthetical word "passport" is getting out from the Kazakh lexicon. Also, alternative word phrase "zhekebas kuzhat", which was used in a periodical press in 1990th of XX century, was considered as a synonym of the word "tolkuzhat", but it wasn't a full synonym of this word, it was used in a certain context due to specific reasons, and was known as a nonce unit that did not become the part of linguistic norm. The evidence of this is that the author gave an explanation of the word "zhekebas kuzhat" in brackets with a word "passport". We believe that this analytical denomination "zhekebas kuzhat" that was used in order to avoid the tautology and repetition of the word "tolkuzhat" belongs to nonce formation appeared in the period of independence.   We consider this in that way because: firstly, a solid word "tolkuzhat" and concordance of its internal meaning and external representation is shorter than in the word phrase "zhekebas kuzhat" (according to conformity with a law of parsimony of language units in speech act), secondly, the first root (tol) of this word is a complete part of Kazakh literary language and a native word of Kazakh lexicon.   In the late of XX century, to be precise in 1996-1998, its figurative meaning "own, peculiar, extraordinary" ,which was derived from its direct meaning that has following original meaning "animal yield up to 6 age", was frequently used and later created  a new word phrase "own books" [2]. It is evident that the multivalent, native word "tol" was combined with the word "kuzhat", which has a meaning "business papers", and then transformed into the neologisms.     The evidence of this is the fact that within the period of 20 years the complex neologism "tolkuzhat" was in eager rivalry used with the borrowed word "passport" (in Russian: "паспорт").  Currently, this neologism is actively used in all forms of communication, especially in the written texts, oral discourse and it is becoming the part of literary language as a prescriptive unit.

The first decade of independence is characterized by the appearance of several mutually viable neologisms defining the name of single notion or phenomena. For example, instead of household word "aylyk" (aylyk is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "salary" in Kazakh language)  were formed words that carry out the nominative function like enbekaky, zhalaky and nonce word "aylykpul" (aylykpul is a nonce unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "salary" in Kazakh language)  , kuntizbe (kuntizbe is the word "calendar" in kazakh language) and kunparak (kunparak is the word "calendar" in kazakh language)) were formed instead of «calendar» - issapar (issapar is lexical unit of kazakh language, it is the word "business trip" in Kazakh language) and zholsapar ((zholsapar is a lexical unit of kazakh language, it is the word "business trip" in Kazakh language)) were formed instead of «komandirovka» ((komandirovka is a lexical unit of Russian language, it is the word "business trip" in Russian language)), unparak (unparak is a lexical unit of kazakh language, it is the word "newspaper" in Kazakh language)  ) and unkagaz (unkagaz is a lexical unit of kazakh language, it is the word "newspaper" in Kazakh language)   were formed instead of  «gazetа» (gazeta is a lexical unit of Russian language, it is the word "newspaper" in Russian language)  ,  auezhai (auezhai is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "airport" in Kazakh language)  ) және aeroturak (aeroturak is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "airport" in Kazakh language)   instead of «aeroport» (aeroport is a lexical unit of Russian language, it is the word "airport" in Russian language),  elbasy (elbasy is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "president" in Kazakh language)   and nonce word eltore (eltore is a nonce unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "president" in Kazakh language)   instead of «president», anuran (anuran is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "anthem" in Kazakh language)   and nonce word eluran (eluran is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "anthem" in Kazakh language)   instead of «gymn»,  otbasy (otbasy is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "family" in Kazakh language), zhanuya (zhanuya is a lexical unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "family" in Kazakh language)   and nonce unit uyelmen (uyelmen is nonce unit of Kazakh language, it is the word "family" in Kazakh language)   were formed instead of «semya» (semya is a lexical unit of Russian language, it is the word "family" in Russian language) [1, 5, 6].

Formation of the words (kuntizbe and kunparak, oramzhapyrak and kyrykkabat, issapar and zolsapar, ikshamaudan, shagynaudan and moltekaudan, auezhai and aeroturak and etc.) vying with each other in a communication process determines the topicality of issues such as: acceptance of word as an integrated linguistic unit and their usage in the linguistic practice, in other words identification of words, lexical doublets and synonyms, peculiar features to these words. For this reason, several investigated neologisms were the basis for emergence of the following characteristics: taking into account stylistic neutral meaning and similarities of lexical meaning (kuntizbe and kunparak, oramzhapyrak and kyrykkabat, issapar and zolsapar, ikshamaudan, shagynaudan and moltekaudan, auezhai and aeroturak and etc.) of any words with context or without it we call them as lexical doublets. To be precise, the first word among the mentioned above is a constant lexical unit with an active usage in the communication and the second doublets may be considered as the units of usage or as the units using to avoid the tautology in the sentence.  The interrelation of alternative neologisms of this group like shagynaudan (shagynaudan is the word "microdistrict" in Kazakh language), and moltekaudan (moltekaudan is the word "microdistrict" in Kazakh language) is slightly different, because the first two words are equal units corresponding with the linguistic consistent pattern in terms of lexical meaning, stylistic shade, frequency of use and that is why these words are not lexical doublets, both variants are figurative words competing with each other in the act of communication. However, an absolute equality (sameness) is not accepted by the language. In the subsequent decades, we can observe that the first word (ikshamaudan) is slightly replaced the latter word (shagynaudan) from the language, in general both variants were made on the basis of single linguistic unit. Because we can observe the predominance of the word  "iksham", while considering some aspects such as frequency of use, polysemy (level of formation in a norm) and the seme of this word has a meaning of the word "small" (iksham bolme «small room») in its relation with the space[2].

The word "shagyn" which is a synonym of this word denoting the meaning of the following words like «kyshy; shektelgen; kyshkentai; olshemi kyshy» (for instance, shagyn kasiporyn "small business") [2]. In this case the seme of the notion "space" has an implicit meaning, therefore the word ikshamaudan (ikshamaudan is the word "microdistrict" in Kazakh language) in comparison with the word shagynaudan could be established as a normative unit.

There is no doubt that the word moltekaudan is gradually joined the ranks of lexical doublets and it is not accepted by the language and not used in the process of communication. Despite the fact that the words like kuntizbe, oramzhapyrak, issapar, ikshamaudan, shagynaudan, tosap, auezhai and aeroturak have similar meanings and stylistic features with the words like kunparak, kyrykkabat, zholsapar, kainatpa, aeroturak, they are considered as the lexical doublets because of the rare use in the communication process. The sameness of lexical meanings of the words gives a possibility to use the doublets in order to avoid the repetition in the sentence.  

The first two lexical units of the group consisting of the words otbasy, zhanuya, uyelmen are gradually using as the synonyms, while the word uyelmen according to the analysis of linguistic material is acquiring the characteristics of nonce words. Let's compare the following sentences: 1) Otbasy (new lexical unit having meaning of the word "family")  is an object of many investigations as a very important social structure. According to the population census, the number of otbasy (new lexical unit having meaning of the word "family") was increased every year [3, 19.09]. 2) In otbasy we had many children [4, № 2]. 3) Otbasy (new lexical unit having meaning of the word "family") that do not speak Kazakh largely lived in the cities and due to the fact that they did not have elderly people, who limit the number of children, such families in demography were called as small "uyelmen" (new lexical unit having meaning of the word "family" but which is used according to specific purposes) [1, 21.04].

As we have observed from the linguistic practice, the neologism otbasy is completely become the part of literary language as a normative unit and this word is replacing the notion semya from the language. The word zhanuya  is a synonym which differs with its emotive/expressive meaning, possibilities of artistic description and if we consider the content of this words, the seme of this word has the meaning "personal;, own, proper": the word otbasy defines the notion ‘semya', while the word zhanuya along with its direct meaning (own/ my family) has an expressive meaning.  The neologism uyelmen is known as the nonce unit due to the rare use in the communication and its function according to which its meaning can be used only in a context.   

The parenthetic words entering Kazakh language from Russian language such as: gazeta, komandirovka, calendar, kapusta, varenie, semya and e.t.c., these words are not fully replaced with other words in a communication, however they are still used by the majority of population.  In the process of investigation, we have observed that in most cases many Kazakh language speaking people use such kind of parenthetic words in order to carry out quick exchange of information or to understand each other in a prompt manner (especially during not prepared face to face communication).  

Conclusions    

Ошибка перевода.In cohdc In conclusion, the formation of dictionaries of the neologisms of Kazakh language is carried out from the point of view of certain criteria created by people using this language. Lexicographic publications describing new lexical units give full information as much as possible about these words such as: determination of new notions' adoption level by language users, showing the nature of development of the linguistic forms and means of communication, providing the information about the purpose and tasks of the dictionary, the sources and measures for the formation of micro and macrostructures of the dictionary, this makes it possible to accurately observe the nominative acts of the human society that are bogged down by history and helps language users to correctly understand and perceive neologisms.



References:
1. «Ana tili» newspaper materials, 1992

2. Russian-Kazakh, Kazakh-Russian dictionary // https://sozdik.kz

3. «Zhas Alash» newspaper, 1995

4. «Zhuldiz» literary yearbook, 1993

5. «Egemen Kazakhstan» newspaper, 1993-1996

6. «Turkestan» newspaper, 1994-1999

7. Sh. Kurmanbayuly “New notions and new uses” - Almaty: Dictionary, 2012. Page - 4.



Bibliographic reference

Sametova F. THE ROLE OF NEOLOGISMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2018. – № 6 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/478-25472 (15.04.2024).