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Home / Issues / № 6, 2016


Tretyakov V.N.


Elucidating the all-human subjectivism of scientific cognition, together with revealing the evolutionary correlates of human cognitive abilities allowed to elaborate and present Mentallion as a conception of theoretical psychology. The principle was grounded about all-human post-evolutionary predisposition to psychical disorders. Mentallion as a tool for theoretic study having been applied to the principle gave possibility to reveal as factors, this predisposition realizing as well as those ones what didn't permit it to get realized, and to describe Egogeny, one's own negative (self-injuring) actions, and show a path to Egogeny-plus, i.e. self-prophylaxis of psychical disorders, as well as to new professional both prophylaxis and treatment. The done gave a ground to have seen the exit from systems crisis in the psychiatry presenting the conception and the principle jointly as a paradigm for renewed psychiatry, post-evolution one. The presented work might be of interest for the WHO's 2013-2020 Plan of bettering of psychical health in the world and the WB 2016 initiative "Making Mental Health a Global Priority".
Keywords: Mentallion, theoretically psychological approach, psychical disorders, post-evolution predestination to psychoses, etiology of psychical disorders, Egogeny, Egogeny-plus, post-evolution psychiatry.

Concept of Mentallion to study the human psyche in norm and pathology

That was A. Einstein's who said more than half century ago: "The most incomprehensive thing about the world is that it is comprehensible". It might be apprehended as hidden challenge thrown down at cognitive scientists. The concept of Mentallion [5.9] permits to realize that the world appears to be more comprehensible owing just to a better understanding of the very compressibility.

The very term Mentallion contaminating MENTALity and LION is to express undestroyed linkage of human mentality with its animal origin.

The path to Mentallion as a conception came through elucidating the all-human subjectivism of scientific cognition [5.2], studying and using the experience of known psychologists in building of a ground of theoretical psychology (mostly of V.M. Allahverdov's [1, 2]), and better realizing of evolutionary correlates of human cognitive abilities [5.5]. Here are theses to present the foundation of Mentallion:

1. The main principle of the life on Earth to have been emerged in result of eliminating evolutionary selection is the all-biological principle of tolerance (ABPT) - Nature is tolerant to differences [5.10] - as expressing evidence that the life on Earth is manifold in its appearances.
2. For higher animals, Homo sapiens including, ABPT at psychical level reveals itself as the cognitive principle of tolerance (CPT); in concordance with it, the tolerance to differences is conveying always -- unconsciously (in animals) and also consciously (in humans) -- all psychical processes [5.10, 5.5], including the cognitive insight [5.4, 5.8].
3. Biological sense of CPT is seen in a compromise decision of Nature allowing animals living in conditions of the eliminating evolution to survive, in spite of their mind must react near-dominantly to extreme situations.
4. Because of this, the narrow volume of attention, being for animals an advantage in wild nature, for people, living under civilization protection, is already a defect [5.5, 5.9], named the shortage of panoramic thinking (SPT). To overcome SPT seriously, that is science, inventiveness, creativeness along the life; as-if to overcome it, that is for pleasure of joking [5.3]).
5. CPT reveals itself whenever the mind is executing the cognitive tolerant inclusion (CTI), being universal mechanism of the psychical activity [5.9]. The very essential classes of CTIs presented in their categorical scheme [5.9, 5.8] are CTIs objective and appraising, with subclasses voluntary and involuntary for each of them (farer OCTIs and ACTIs).
6. The inference concerning CTIs as universal mechanisms of psychical processes (to be turned into tools in while researching) is grounded on the evident causation of ABPT and CPT. It is confirmed by the very logics of Nature: without CPT, Nature would have not inter-species nor inner-species manifold [5.10].
7. The recent (2014) discovery of an unique zone in human prefrontal cortex having no analogue in animal minds (look at [5.4, 5.9]) permits to interpreter voluntary CTIs as accomplished by people just with help of this neuronal substrate.
8. As much as the principle "living nature is tolerant to differences" is all-biologic, CTP to be a consequence of ABPT [5.10] is all-psychological one as having to do with the work of the mind both of animals and people.
9. Community between ABPT and CPT is seen as well at the included wide areas of their competences: owing to ABPT, it is the life that begot by the evolution, with all richness of its systematic manifold, and owing to CTIs controlled by CPT, it is human civilization that created on the same planet.
10. Each accomplished CTI is argued [5.9, 5.8] to have its neuronal substrate being an engram stored in the memory.

Principle of post-evolution human predisposition to psychical disorders

As the principle is essentially changing the very apprehending of psychical disorders and their etiology, in [5.11] a dozen of heterogeneous arguments are given to confirm it. Among them:

- Our nearest ancestors, monkeys, might not pass us genetically such the predisposition, because "ability" to live with psychical disorders in the wild nature was and is incompatible with the eliminating character of the evolution; as for about 45 millennia (the time of Homo Sapiens existence), these were too short term for the evolution to have formed such "ability".
- Enormous diapason of differences on mental quality among people -- since idiots and imbeciles up to gifted and geniuses -- may be considered as a right evidence that genetic evolution on Reason was and is absent.
- Psychical norm and pathology are very near. Really, somebody may "came out of oneself" (i.e. to experience a kind of depersonalization), have idées fixes and obstinately hear melodies or lines of a poems (i.e. have "soft" symptom of importunity), be in the state of as-if autism in while of being deeply involved into a creative occupation.
- Similar post-evolution predisposition to cancer sicknesses [5.6] human beings gained having built "heat-loving" civilization, though the very appearance both of Homo Sapiens and human civilization stood possible owing (without parentheses) to cruel conditions of Great Cold of long Ice Centuries [5.10].

Post-evolution psychiatry

Post-evolution predisposition to psychical disorders gives the ground to revise the very approach to their etiology [5.11]. It appears then that there are factors, this predisposition aggravating: stresses, psychotic traumas, maiming - among factors of exogenous kind; weak type of nervous system, aging, labile character of psyche, lingering somatic illnesses - among factors of endogenous kind. So, factors of both kinds are inseparable and making for realization of the predisposition as acting always together.

There is then a ground to present a phenomenon of Egogeny, i.e. the cause of initiation / aggravation of a psychical disorder when one accomplishes inadequate reflection to some psychogenic exogenous-endogenous impacts, even when somatic health doesn't give organic causes for a person to get psychical ill [5.11].

Acting "subjects" of that Egogenic "tragedy" are:

Shortage of Panoramic Thinking (SPT) that carries out his history since pre-people's times. SPT is aggravated at any one's psychical tension;

Involuntary Objective Cognitive Tolerant Inclusion (IOCTI) to have Diffused Attention as his "bearer" accomplishes in obstinate manner his inclusions both in outer and inner mental spaces; has very ancient relatives among animals;

is very curious in looking for something new, unusual and unhealthy interest to see dangerous, terrible wherever;
Voluntary Objective Cognitive Tolerant Inclusion (VOCTI) that had begun acting after when people mastered speech, not earlier; sees his use in helping them to discourse about problems arisen;

Involuntary Estimating Cognitive Tolerant Inclusion (IECTI) to have some million age is querulous, all-condemning pessimist; helps people to be in Egogenic state and move to their psychical disorders;

Voluntary Estimating Cognitive Tolerant Inclusion (VECTI) that wants for people all good and believes in truth of preferable; as young, only some millennia old, is instable and frequently wined by IECTI.

In [5.11] some concrete examples are given to show how "psychiatric drama" with these acting "subjects" ends for a person with that or other psychical disorder.

Egogeny may be with the sign plus

However strangely it is, the principle of post-evolution human predisposition to psychical disorders is rather optimistic than pessimistic, as, in particular, one may know, bear in mind, and use the factors of counteracting to the predisposition until a psychical disorder gets a medical fact. It means side by side with reflection begetting Egogeny, may be another reflection, Egogeny-plus, with orientation onto self-prophylaxis, and even therapy and self-therapy directed by psychiatrists.

In [5.11] a dozen of heuristics how to avert psychical disorders and/or overcome them are given. Here are some of them (explanations omitted):

* To realize SPT as the very dangerous narrow specialization of the Reason, even if existential meta-problem of the civilization [5.7].
* To see in own anxiety, obsessions, feelings of crash or unhappiness etc. only one of hasty thinking's appearances as a feature of the same SPT.
* To have a sureness that our psyche is able not only "to help" in initiation and enrooting of psychical disorders, but as well avert them and overcome.
* To strive for the panoramic thinking [5.7], at that in different senses -- spatial, temporal, or/and conceptual ones, realizing that for us is customary to overestimate meaning of "here and now", i.e. to attach too big importance to current events and concrete circumstances of the life.
* To consider appearances of own psychical unhealthy state as a cause to elucidate how in the best way to use own gift of the reflection for psychical regulation
* To carry out mobile way of life and to give own organism everyday coolness "load".
* To pay attention not only interrelations with others, but to master as well the culture of interrelation with own self.

There is a subject in [5.11] as well on the sleep and like-sleep states in the aspect of Egogeny-plus aimed to withstand anxiousness, breach of the sleep, and nightmares. Being based on differential equation for the level of vigilance [5.1], the subject gets in [5.11] a new interpretation and enforcing in terms of Mentallion [5.9], i.e. OCTIs and ECTIs, both involuntary and voluntary.

Attempt to classify psychical disorders newly

The foundation for such the classification to propose gives the integral factor of importunity, always influencing the human psyche because of incompatibility between civilization conditions of existence and those when the "animal compound" of human nature had been formed. A consideration to count importunity the main feature of psychical disorders is as well that it is acting among so called psychically healthy people, more correctly: being in premorbid state. Thus, there is the first classification base to differ importunities by degree of their nearness to psychical disorders:

importunity may be premorbid and morbid.

Varieties of premorbid importunities: conditionally reflective (i.е. automatisms), memetic, ritual, confessional, behavioral, socially both normalized and not normalized, intentionally and unintentionally directed, addictional, etc.
Here is given a fuller listing of morbid importunities replenishing those in [5.11]: symptomatic (defining disorder alarmic, phobic, panicle, depressive, addictional, etc.) and syndromatic ones (defining disorders alarm-phobic, schizophrenic, bipolar-affective, maniacal-depressive, obsessive-compulsive, hallucinatory-paranoiac, etc.); behavioral and mental; initial and replaced; subjectively both positive and negative; objectively both positive and negative.

Additional argument to take the importunity as a base for classification is importunate character of the attention. It is not only psychical process per se, but "bearer" of all psychical processes as well. At state of vigilance the attention is always present, outer or inner, undirected (disseminated) or directed (active). Naturally, elementary acts of attention are the same CTIs, voluntary or involuntary, objective or estimating, in all their manifold.


There is a cause to express disagreement with the very title of V.P. Samokhvalov's book [4]: human psychical disorders may not have a base in "evolutionarily biological mechanisms" [4, p. 106] as psychoses in animals may not evolve because of eliminating character of evolution separation [5.11]. As well incorrect is that psychoses gained by animals in experiments on destroying their conditional reflexes are "the right argument" for such mechanisms. On the contrary, experimental psychoses prove just post-evolution etiology of psychoses in people where incompatibility as well acts between human nature and civilization conditions.
In R.А. Yevsegneyev's opinion [7, p. 150], the biologically inherited by us anxiety "has undoubted biologically expediency as predicting on danger and mobilizing the organism to accomplish those or other actions." Let's take into account, however, that the feeling of anxiety accompanying somatic illness and entering into structure of other psychical disorders" is turned, as a prediction, into something opposite -
into a way to prolong and enforce the anxiety.

S.E. Davtyan in [3] proposed "the principle of reality" for a psychiatrist at working with a patient, what means "to enter into its feelings and reconstruct his reality." But if to take into consideration that such emotional "entering" into ill psyche is already a kind of empathy, such manner to treat may look like as dangerous for psychical health of the very psychiatrist. (About "contagiousness" of psychical disorders knew already G. Lebon. See about it in [5.11]).
As for "systems crisis in the psychiatry because of the lack of its real paradigm [3], then it may be helped. It is the principle of post-evolution human predisposition to psychical disorders that may be proposed as such the paradigm, for it, together with Mentallion tools, to get a ground for creating and forming the post-evolution psychiatry. The above said gives an evidence that the adverb in this term is a constant epithet, as an other psychiatry is not given people.

How S.E. Davtyan gives evidence in [3], "our clinical terminology is absolutely not accommodated to describe the norm. Just because of it, with dispirited inevitability, emerges a break in description of coming-to-be process of a sickness, though being continuous in its nature." Theoretical psychiatry with the named above principle of the predisposition [5.11], together with Mentallion concept [5.9] as its instrument, might be used in resolving this problem as well - just because of that ECTIs and OCTIs, both voluntary and involuntary, are acting as in morbid states as well as in premorbid ones.


Principle of post-evolution human predisposition to psychical disorders to be considered as basic one in the paradigm of renewed psychiatry, gives a stimuli for it to develop as a theoretical science, and as clinical as well as psycho-therapeutic practices. Egogenical etiology actualizes the problem of forming the psychological culture of interrelation someone with oneself and gives a ground for Egogeny-plus, a new prophylaxis and self-prophylaxis of psychical disorders. Mentallion concept [5.9]. being accepted as a new paradigm of cognitive science [5.4], is seen to be apt for Egogeny-plus as well.

For psychical disorders to have no organic base the very essential etiologic factor stands Egogeny, i.е. that self-injuring psychotic influence what may be turned into influence of self-treating, into Egogeny-plus, including self-psychotherapy directed by a psychiatrist. Arguments with using CTIs, both involuntary and voluntary, permit to assert that disorders of Egogenic etiology should be very characteristic for people not old, i.e. workable. This and about 27% of psychical ills in countries of West Europe on data of 2004 [7, p. 22] are as well the right evidence that psychiatric help is until sufficient nor effective. All this together was likely to be one of causes for the WB in 2016 to take a part in the WHO 2013-2020 plan to better psychical health, with a motto: "Making Mental Health a Global Priority" [6].

Presented as an on-line report to International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Research in Medicine
(Paris, October 2016)

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16. World Bank 2016 initiative: http://www.worldbank.org/en/events/2016/03/09/out-of-the-shadows-making-mental-health-a-global-priority#

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Bibliographic reference

URL: www.science-sd.com/468-25114 (17.07.2024).