About Us

Executive Editor:
Publishing house "Academy of Natural History"

Editorial Board:
Asgarov S. (Azerbaijan), Alakbarov M. (Azerbaijan), Aliev Z. (Azerbaijan), Babayev N. (Uzbekistan), Chiladze G. (Georgia), Datskovsky I. (Israel), Garbuz I. (Moldova), Gleizer S. (Germany), Ershina A. (Kazakhstan), Kobzev D. (Switzerland), Kohl O. (Germany), Ktshanyan M. (Armenia), Lande D. (Ukraine), Ledvanov M. (Russia), Makats V. (Ukraine), Miletic L. (Serbia), Moskovkin V. (Ukraine), Murzagaliyeva A. (Kazakhstan), Novikov A. (Ukraine), Rahimov R. (Uzbekistan), Romanchuk A. (Ukraine), Shamshiev B. (Kyrgyzstan), Usheva M. (Bulgaria), Vasileva M. (Bulgar).

Additional Information

Authors

Login to Personal account

Home / Issues / № 2, 2016

Historical science

ON THE RESTRICTION OF THE LIQUOR ON THE NIKOLAEVSKAYA RAILWAY
Makarevich N. A., Vasilev J. A.

The problem of alcoholism in the society today is very relevant, the state, the public and many organizations strongly fight this scourge. But as you know, new is well forgotten old. And 19th century was not an exception to this.

The opening of traffic in Nikolaevskaya (nowadays Octiabrskaya) railway, has provided great opportunities not only in terms of faster delivery of goods and people, but also for related businesses. The last place was taken by the sale of alcoholic beverages. Fishing this was very common, as guarantee for traders massive profits. In order to streamline and control of fisheries, the government of Alexander II adopted the Charter on drinking charges, and in 1863 in the Russian Empire launched an excise system [2].

In paragraph 320 of this Charter was determined that with the exception of warehouses and hotels at the post stations, it was forbidden to have: 1) throughout the railroad no places retail sales of spirits (including tavern, Inns) closer than a hundred "sazhens" from the main path of the railway in both sides (1 "sazhen", fathom - 2.1 m); 2) from the station buildings at the railway stations in the cities all sorts of drinking establishments closer to 60 fathoms, and tavern establishments closer to 30 fathoms.; 3) "Posads" (small town), towns, villages and other places, all sorts of drinking establishments within 100 fathoms.; tavern establishments and Inns closer to 30 fathoms. On railway stations it was supposed only selling in bulk in cupboards [3].

In General, the law was far from perfect, what soon became clear from the practice.

In this regard, the Moscow chief of police has not found other exit how to report to the Minister of Finance M. Kh. Rautern, which, in turn, forwarded this message to the Minister of communications A. I. Delvig. 18 Jul 1870 came the reply, in which he generally repeated the main provisions of paragraph 320 of the Charter: for Railways where there are no buildings, the minimum distance from the main railway track is 100 fathoms.; In the places where there are buildings, drinking establishments must comply with a distance of 60 fathoms., and restaurants and Inns to 30 fathoms. The "Posads" is not permitted the device of pubs closer to 100 fathoms. from the structure, and the taverns and Inns closer to 30 fathoms.

But the chief of police of Moscow N.U. Arapov did not share the position of Minister of Railways. He believed that the shopkeepers to open their shops and restaurants with alcohol not so much in the vicinity of stations, how much for the whole rail journey. Because the allowed distance from the main road less than 100 fathoms. This may entail irreparable consequences, since the backlog of trains from the schedule, ending human victims. Thus, the police believed that it was necessary to prohibit the opening of drinking establishments throughout the way, and allow only the landside restaurants (which, as you know, was not the pubs) [4].

In the discussion of this issue took part in the Council of communications and the head of the Moscow-Kursk railway Klewicki and called for the preservation of specified distances. However, the Minister Delvig believed that this may cause in practice certain difficulties. For example, such a considerable distance from the stations, pubs, more like "dry law". Mainly, the Minister of communications prevails about the sobriety of its employees, noting that the injuries associated with drunkenness near the railway, is not a rare phenomenon. However, he agreed with the opinion of the Minister of Finance, which is sufficient distance to pubs in the cities are not 100 blacks., and on 60 (pursuant to article 320, it is possible to do)[5]. However, he did not abandon the hope that soon those numbers about cities will be revised: the distance - in a big way, and the number of pubs is down [6].

Thus, we can see that the railroad contributed to the development of entrepreneurship, including attracted and liquor dealers. Article 320 of the Charter on drinking collection was aimed at the fight against alcoholism in areas where control over the workers was less than at railway stations. In our time, the sale of spirits at railway stations is prohibited [7].



References:
1. The study was funded from the Federal budget to conduct scientific research (fundamental research, applied research and experimental development) No. 2667 "Novgorod land in the context of socio-cultural development: history, archaeology, and culture" carried out within the framework of the basic part of state task in the sphere of scientific activities.

2. Encyclopedic dictionary. Brockhaus F. A. and Efron, I. A. (Internet resource. Date of access 04.03.2016. Time. 17:05.)

3. The Charter of drink Assembly // Сode of laws of the Russian Empire. Volume V. Сontinuation of 1869. St. 320.

4. The Russian state historical archive (RGIA). F.219. Inv.1. Un.325. P.1-3.

5. RGIA. F.219. Inv.1. Un.325. P.17.

6. RGIA. F.219. Inv.1. Un.325. P.18-19.

7. Federal law of 22.11.1995 № 171-FZ (ed. from 29.12.2015) "On state regulation of production and turnover of ethyl alcohol, alcoholic and alcohol-containing products and about restriction of consumption (drinking) of alcoholic products.St.16. (Internet resource. Date of access 04.03.2016. Time 17:46).



Bibliographic reference

Makarevich N. A., Vasilev J. A. ON THE RESTRICTION OF THE LIQUOR ON THE NIKOLAEVSKAYA RAILWAY. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2016. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/464-25162 (22.05.2024).