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Home / Issues / № 2, 2016

Historical science

Makarevich N. A., Vasilev J. A.

The idea of building Railways in Russia has attracted worldwide attention. In the early nineteenth century, there was an almost complete lack of suitable means of communication. So roads first appeared in the Russian Empire only in 1816, thanks to a special cash collecting 25 cents. But it is well known that the unpaved roads were in good form with the seasons - in summer and winter, as they were affected by weather conditions, due to its simplicity and primitiveness of the material from which was built. Often due to obstruction of the way, cabs were throwing carts on the road, taking only their horses. Such unforeseen circumstances complicated the management of Affairs of trade merchants and other entrepreneurs, as well as the despair of travelling on their own and government business [2]. So the railroad came in handy and had a significant impact on the economic and social life.

After all the twists and turns of the election project and other projects, the construction was started in 1844 [3].

Almost any construction associated with earthworks. The construction of the St.Petersburg-Moscow (Nikolaevskaja) railway from 1844 was doomed to a huge amount of such work, and, almost exclusively using manual labor. Strip Nikolaev railway was so Grand now that the day has presented some surprises. One of them fell South of the road Directorate.

6 Sep 1845, chief of the 5th section of the southern Directorate of captain A.I. Stukenberg brought the head of the southern Directorate Colonel N. O. Kraft unusual discovery made by workers in area of Vyshniy Volochek, near the village Pereletova. During excavation in one of the notches on the field was discovered very interesting archaeological artifacts. These findings were immediately taken to the Director of the southern Directorate. Kraft, in turn, immediately began drafting a Memorandum and then the list of findings was sent to the Department of Railways under Ministry of Railways. And as the qualities of a true engineer and a person who is used to report all with extraordinary precision, he did it properly.

In the list of finds with a description of the type of soil and depth of findings were listed:

1. A mammoth's tooth. "Found in alluvial hill, a large sand without any admixture of clay at a depth of 10 ft.

2. The tooth of rhinoceros or Rhino. "Found in the same excavation at a depth of 8 feet.

3. Three fragments of bones. "Found in the same place"

4. Two boar's tooth. "Found while digging drainage ditches in the 27th mile 5th phase".[4]

Found the bones were taken to the railway Department. After that, the Director of the Department was proposed to send these findings to the Academy of Sciences.

5 Dec 1845 P.A. Kleinmichel, as the actual head of the construction of the railway sent these findings to the Ministry of national education, which received them on December 8th. For Deposit into the collection funds of the Academy of Sciences, P.A. Kleinmichel was thanked [5].

Thanks to the education of subordinates and crafting his own mind, the findings do not become victims of ignorance and illiteracy and do not fall into random hands. This small episode proves once again that the construction of the railway worked really well educated intellectual elite of the time who paid attention to such seemingly insignificant detail.

The Nikolaevskaja railway was and remains one of the greatest creations of Russian engineering. It was the starting point for new challenges and discoveries. It has opened new horizons in many industries, trade relations, education and many other things. The Nikolaevskaja railway is still something more than just a mode of transportation. After the railroad left its mark in art and literature. She is nothing but an object of pride for their own state. Which started this case in the nineteenth century, and the relay is still going on.

1. The study was funded from the Federal budget to conduct scientific research (fundamental research, applied research and experimental development) №2667 "Novgorod land in the context of socio-cultural development: history, archaeology, and culture" carried out within the framework of the basic part of state task in the sphere of scientific activities.

2. Velikin B. Petersburg-Moscow. 1934. Р. 20-21; Virginsky V.S. Contention around preparation for the construction of the first great Russian railway. The railway Petersburg-Moscow.M.USSR Academy of sciences.1950.Р.68; The Russian state historical archive (RGIA) F. 248. Op. 1. 6. The journals Committee and the construction Committee of St. Petersburg-Moscow railway. L. 4-6, 49-56;

3. Augustynuk, A., Gvozdev M. the First line. Leningrag., 1951. P. 49.

4. RGIA. F. 219. Op. 1. 50. On fossilized bones found in the excavations at the device land paintings of the Petersburg-Moscow railway. L. 1-4.

5. RGIA. F. 219. Op. 1. 50. On fossilized bones found in the excavations at the device land paintings of the Petersburg-Moscow railway. L. 4.

Bibliographic reference

Makarevich N. A., Vasilev J. A. PALEONTOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES DURING CONSTRUCTION OF THE NIKOLAEVSKAJA RAILWAY . International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2016. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/464-25161 (27.09.2023).