About Us

Executive Editor:
Publishing house "Academy of Natural History"

Editorial Board:
Asgarov S. (Azerbaijan), Alakbarov M. (Azerbaijan), Aliev Z. (Azerbaijan), Babayev N. (Uzbekistan), Chiladze G. (Georgia), Datskovsky I. (Israel), Garbuz I. (Moldova), Gleizer S. (Germany), Ershina A. (Kazakhstan), Kobzev D. (Switzerland), Kohl O. (Germany), Ktshanyan M. (Armenia), Lande D. (Ukraine), Ledvanov M. (Russia), Makats V. (Ukraine), Miletic L. (Serbia), Moskovkin V. (Ukraine), Murzagaliyeva A. (Kazakhstan), Novikov A. (Ukraine), Rahimov R. (Uzbekistan), Romanchuk A. (Ukraine), Shamshiev B. (Kyrgyzstan), Usheva M. (Bulgaria), Vasileva M. (Bulgar).

Additional Information


Login to Personal account

Home / Issues / № 2, 2016


Vasiliev Y. A., Kurnosov V. V.

Small credit institutions, which became widespread in Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries, created to support primarily small and medium enterprises and for the development of different forms of business activity generally. They were formed on the eve of the First world war branched three-tier credit system, which included about 30 thousand institutions.

Under the small credit institutions in the Russian Empire understood local institutions, uniting a limited number of persons (living, usually quite compact) and conducting banking transactions is significantly limited in terms of volume, for example, excluding promissory notes and the size the speed and equity. These indicators characterize these institutions as quite small, even dwarf, the local values prevailing predominantly in rural areas.

In 1914 in Russia there were a sufficiently large number of institutions of small credits, which differ in the following types:

1). Class and community: the municipality, the proportion of rural banks in the sample of 1840, 1859, 1885; rural, township and the village public, the savings and loan office; Zemstvo cash small loan, a city pawn shops, and some others.

2). Private: savings-loan associations partnerships, credit Association, joint-stock private pawn shops, loan offices and offices; savings and loans and credit unions ancillary Fund officials, employees and others.

3). State: two loan Treasury in the capital (government pawnshops), public savings banks (both separate and at different institutions - treasuries, offices, banks, post and Telegraph offices, railway stations, etc.).

Small credit institutions were included in the system of credit institutions of the Russian Empire. The top level of this system, according to S. A. Andryushin, were state institutions: first of all banks: - State bank, Noble land bank, Peasants land bank, two Treasury Loan (pawn shops) in St. Petersburg and Moscow, as well as more than 8.5 thousand of savings banks. The second level included the private enterprises of a commercial loan (47 joint-stock companies, 10 joint-stock land banks and 18 joint stock pawn shops) and public credit institutions (1108 mutual loan societies, 367 public Bank, 105 city pawnshops, 33 urban credit society, 6 rural public banks and 6 urban social class banks). The lower level was small credit institutions (credit 9.5 thousand and 3.5 thousand savings and loan associations, 6.4 thousand class establishments, 203 provincial cash small loan, 11 unions of institutions of small credits and two cooperative Bank).

In the province of Novgorod, had virtually all the above-mentioned small credit institutions, although a significant spread reached only three kinds - savings and loan Association, credit associations, and savings banks, however, the first of them in the province there is a County and specific banks (1840 and 1859), spread the truth, in the range of 1-2 counties.

In the Novgorod province in 1856, there were 13 regional banks with a capital of 14 thousand rubles. In the future, their number gradually decreased, reaching in the early twentieth century, about 12 township banks in old Russian, Cherepovets and Ustyuzhna districts.

Novgorod province specific banks were few in number and has spread in only three counties. In 1882 they numbered 14, 1897 - 23, 1900-1901 - 22 specific Bank, 1913 - 20.

In the Novgorod province in 1897, operated only one rural Bank sample 1885, 1902 - 6, by 1914, there were data on nine rural and township banks of the new sample operating in the province of Novgorod.

In 1871-1877 he arose in Russia 966 savings and loan associations, including, in the Novgorod province - 54. In 1911 the information about yourself provided to 17 communities.

Credit unions are superior in 1913, the savings and loan on practically all major indicators: the number of institutions - 2 times (55 versus 24), the number of members - 5 times (45 million vs. 9.5 million).

In 1914, the information about themselves presented six savings and loan banks officials, workers, employees, clergy, Novgorod province.

The number of savings banks in the province has increased steadily and by 1913 had reached 105 with the total amount of deposits of 22.3 million.

The first in the Novgorod province. and one of the first in Russia was the Tikhvin city of Lombard, which opened its operations in 1889, In 1891, was established by the old Russian and 1894 - Novgorod pawn shops. In 1912, he opened a pawnshop in the town of Belozersk.

The creation of a system, which gathered together all small credit institutions and transforming them from disparate and tiny establishments in the real force that could resist to the large capital, which began in 1900 years has not been completed, and which was prevented by world war I and opposition by some statesmen, who believed that state support may be provided only to small credit institutions whose activity lies in the field of agriculture or industrial production, avoiding attention, for example, the city pawnshops or credit Union savings banks officers and employees.


The study was funded from the Federal budget to conduct scientific research (fundamental research, applied research and experimental development) №2667 "Novgorod land in the context of socio-cultural development: history, archaeology, and culture" carried out within the framework of the basic part of state task in the sphere of scientific activities.

1. Andryushin S. A. Development and forms of small credit in Russia // Money and credit. 1996. №7. Р.65-77.

2. The memorable book of the Novgorod province in 1914. Novgorod, 1915.

3. The current situation of small credit in Russia. St. Petersburg, 1909.

4. Statistical collection of the Novgorod province Zemstvo in 1913. Novgorod, 1914.

5. The numerical growth of credit cooperatives in Russia. St. Petersburg, 1912.

Bibliographic reference

Vasiliev Y. A., Kurnosov V. V. THE TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS OF SMALL CREDITS RUSSIAN EMPIRE (FOR EXAMPLE, NOVGOROD PROVINCE) . International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2016. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/464-25108 (27.09.2023).