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Home / Issues / № 2, 2013


Theoretical –Methodological Principles of Higher Education Study

Nowadays one of the most actual problems of historical science is to develop methodological approaches to the study of complex systems. Higher school belongs to one of them. Methodology - is the theory of historical knowledge and cognition, closely connected with the techniques of historical investigation - the basic of any scientific research.

While studying the system of higher education it is necessary to take into account different factors, affecting its development. It is the state on the macro-level. For example, in Russia its influence on higher education school had several peculiarities. The most important of them were the following: higher education establishments were founded and functioned by the power of the government; traditionally higher education had high prestige in the society; stable fundamental basis, scientific-research work of the students under supervision of their teachers; forming of professional qualifications of the students on the basic of their moral characteristics. Namely, moral features of the student defined in many ways his motivation in getting education, in life. As a result, higher educational establishments were viewed both by the power structures and be the staff of professors and teachers not only as educational establishments, but also as the place for development and reproduction of special layer of the people, who had definite world outlook, life values and peculiarities of professional conduct. The state oriented educational establishments to prepare qualified specialists and the people loyal to the political system. However, the best representatives of Russian scientific-pedagogical intelligentsia considered moral features the most important for the society and for each citizen. In such a way Russian intelligentsia was being formed.

Micro-factors - an educational environment of concrete higher educational school. Educational environment includes scientific-pedagogical traditions, research trends and schools, forms and methods of extra-curriculum activities. The teachers of higher school play the most important role in the forming of this environment.

Such vision of higher-education development corresponds to the requirements of systematic approach, according to which higher school is considered to be the part of state structure. Systematic approach allows to imagine higher education as complex system, to distinguish general, repeated, typical peculiarities in the structure and functioning of higher education in different countries.

Dialectical-materialistic and systematic approaches require realization in the unity of such principles as historical method, taking into account all-round development.

The principle of historical method supposes viewing the phenomenon under study in concrete-historical conditions. It is natural that modern life puts its own tasks before the researcher, actualizing these or those sides of the phenomenon under study. However, the principle of historical method supposes the analysis of the object under study taking into account historical peculiarities.

In other words, the study of higher school education history requires complex interdiscipline approach. Methodological synthesis supposes using as scientific instrument the method of such humanitarian sciences as: philosophy, sociology, anthropology and others.

Cultural-semiotic approach represents an interest as it appeals to the view of the participants of historical process. It is important because higher education development depends a lot from professional qualities, organization abilities, creative and moral potential of the teachers.

Methods of cultural anthropology can play a positive role, as they focus attention on the sense of symbols and traditions, penetrating the life of higher school from ancient times uh to nowadays.

I suppose that through comprehension of theoretical-methodological approaches to the study of higher education both in separate countries and in the word allows to develop an effective tools for its research, what is actual in contemporary conditions of choosing higher education optimization.

Bibliographic reference

BUDNIK G.A. Theoretical –Methodological Principles of Higher Education Study. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2013. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/455-24085 (23.02.2024).