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Home / Issues / № 1, 2013

Teaching science

Zebrin Yakov


Currently, in our schools and universities are mainly used traditional (informational) training methods. The learning process of students in most cases comes down to the process of transmission of information from teacher to student. The ultimate goal of training is often vague and uncertain. The questions arise: "Why spend all this training? How exactly will apply these skills? Exactly how new skills will affect the results in real life? Does the participant, why would he need this training? What it gives him or at least, what is demanded of him these skills? What will happen when he will no longer use them? Responsibility for the outcome of learning lies mainly on the teacher, which often leads to passivity of the students themselves.

In addition, an attempt to teach students study skills without changing the mental model of the person, at least, is inefficient and deeply flawed, as these academic skills using a particular person, with all of their beliefs and values. Skills themselves are neutral - makes them effective only specific person.


The purpose of research is a comparative analysis of the informational and the transformational of teaching methods as well as a brief description of the features of transformational learning method and a review of practical experience in the application of the transformational method of teaching in secondary and higher education.

Material and methods

Transformational learning and development - is one of the attempts to find an answer on many questions. The concept itself is in the process of formation and may have many questions seem controversial and ambiguous. But, on the other hand, it makes you think and move away from the usual well-established dogmas in the training and development of students and to adopt a new system of organization learning. First of all, let's divide the concept of "training" and "development." They are related but not synonymous. Education is the transfer and acquisition of knowledge and skills of the message object of knowledge, skills of any domain.

The development is the process of transition from one state to another, more perfect. A qualitative change in the object, the emergence of new forms of life, innovation and with the transformation of the dual internal and external communications. The development is a complex process and involves a degree of binding human intrinsic motivation to change, due to the complex system of relationships reformatting and requires more time.

At the moment, we can say that there is a shift from the paradigm of learning "education-training" to "development- education/establishment". Education is no longer a simple translation of a specific set of knowledge and professional skills. The characteristic features of the new paradigm are:

  • focus on the result of the whole process;
  • a systematic approach to both content and experiential learning;
  • Constructivism, which means that the party did not just get in the process of learning a certain amount of knowledge and skills. It integrates the knowledge and skills in their model of the world, and designs it again. The participant must act as a thinker, creator, and designer.


10-steps process of transformational learning. According to the theory of transformational learning is as follows:

  1. The situation of uncertainty and discomfort;
  2. Introspection;
  3. A critical evaluation;
  4. Recognition of the problem or dissatisfaction;
  5. Exploring options and alternatives;
  6. Planning a course of action;
  7. Acquiring the necessary knowledge implementation of the plan;
  8. The practice of the new roles and behaviors;
  9. Formation of competence and confidence in the new behavior;
  10. Integration into the model of peace and development of new significant prospects.

Another possible model is the process of conducting this study. It involves the development of a spiral with a constant return to the point of choice when a man will determine the need for further transformation of himself and his own willingness to her.


The main objective of the learning process is this shift the locus of control of the environment in our own model of the human world. With this comes the process of expanding the boundaries of human capabilities, its ability to influence their own work, a willingness to take responsibility and deal with complex and unfamiliar tasks.

Actually, the real world is a complex composed of random, undefined problems which are in the context of the environment. Therefore, training should be carried out taking into account the context and all the interrelationships of the system. A person needs to know why he needs to learn something, and how the topic is related to its future activities. The most effective in this case, the nonlinear form of training - where participants learn new strategies and behaviors in the system. The most appropriate forms of work:

  • Problem-solving, in which the script forms the basis for the analysis and discussion, supervised teacher, and the action plan developed by a group of students. Group is invited to voice their ideas, to share the necessary research work between the participants, and reassemble after a certain time in order to discuss the results
  • Modeling - a chance to practice solutions to unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar context by modeling complex situations
  • Role-playing game
  • Exercises aimed at the formation of the team - activities with a focus on the work of the whole group, not a single participant at work

In the transformation may be involved three types of learning: instrumental, communicative and creative.

  • Instrumental - learning through problem solving and determination of cause-and-effect relationships
  • Communicative - communication of feelings, needs and emotions with other people
  • Creative - Understanding yourself and the surrounding through creative forms of work (deep awareness of the "I" through drawing, writing short stories and essays)

Transformational theory focuses on how to learn to act according to their own goals, values ​​and feelings, rather than just rely on what we have received, or heard from others. This allows you to get more control over their own lives and make better decisions. We are transforming the coordinate system - their own and other people because analyze our assumptions about themselves and about the world ... we identify those assumptions that create problems for us, or do not allow us to operate effectively.


Comparative analysis of the informational (traditional) and transformational (innovative) teaching methods:

1. Informational Training

  • Knowledge static, limited, linear, and are not available to all
  • Guidance model (teachers convey "facts" teachable)
  • Certification based on the repeat of the facts
  • Focus on teacher evaluation

2. Transformational Training

  • Knowledge dynamic, multi-dimensional, subject to change and are publicly available
  • Structural model (concepts are going to build and change by means of interviews, built-in training plans and proven in practice)
  • On the basis of analysis, synthesis and problem solving
  • Orientation to the student (what are the needs of the student and whether they are satisfied? What is the degree of readiness of the participant? What progress he makes? What results are sought through new patterns of behavior?)


Change the criteria for evaluating the results of their studies. To assess the need to develop a system of key indicators of study, which are measured at the inlet and analyzed in the course of the study. It will, as it is influenced by the behavior of the new models and strategies to operations. In addition, it gives the opportunity to understand who uses new methods and models, and who could not learn them quickly. Also it needs to change the role of students. They should be clearly informed: to solve any problems to this training, as they do not meet the needs of the future situation, they must be aware that this training is necessary for future success in life.


Transformational learning is a complex and ambiguous process, which is a tool for solving specific problems. In partial transformation (change of certain beliefs, self-perception), this training is effective in holding it to the beginning of the cycle of learning. In this case, the empirical and life simulation games that allow you to critically rethink the current level of knowledge and skills and thus create incentives for further training.

The program of transformational learning can take various forms and be filled with different contents. A key factor in the development - this is the result to be achieved, students, their motivation and goals, the required degree of transformation (change of attitude to the significant changes in the patterns of behavior). All this is generally determined on a case by case basis.

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3. Taylor, E. W. The theory and practice of transformative learning: A critical review, 1998.

4. Mezirow, J. Understanding transformation theory. Adult Education Quarterly, 1994.

5. Mezirow, J. Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.

6. Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1999.

Bibliographic reference

Zebrin Yakov INNOVATION IN PEDAGOGICS: TRANSFORMATIONAL TRAINING METHODS. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2013. – № 1 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/452-24291 (24.03.2023).