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Home / Issues / № 3, 2017

Teaching science

Barabanov R.E.
Summary. Inclusive education is not a new phenomenon, but it has not been studied enough. The realization of the right to educate trainees with special educational needs is associated with overcoming barriers, so creating a psychologically comfortable educational environment is important. Individual educational trajectories that can be developed to ensure the realization of a personified approach that allows each subject of the educational process to move along the educational route at a convenient speed for subsequent reflection can become an educational tool.

Keywords: Inclusive education, individual educational trajectories, personalized approach, psychological comfort.

According to medical, psychological-pedagogical and social studies, the number of students with speech, voice, hearing, motor, vision and psyche increased significantly in recent years. The training of this category of people drew attention to the problems of their adaptation on the basis of knowledge about the specifics of the development and socialization of boys and girls with special educational needs, but the question of the full development of the trainee as an active subject of the educational process and the problem of qualified psychological assistance in this area still remains urgent. But, if the problems of inclusive education of schoolchildren with special educational needs are paid quite a lot of attention in the scientific and scientific and methodical literature, then the work on teaching students in higher education institutions belonging to this category, and even more so studies devoted to psychological support and adaptation in the educational environment, not too much [11, 12].

Inclusive education in higher education is a key political goal for the education of young people with special educational needs. The realization of the right to education of these persons has traditionally been one of the most important aspects of the state policy in the field of education. This policy was caused by democratic changes in the structure of the state and concern for the rights of children and youth. Normative and legal basis in the field of education of trainees with special educational needs in the Russian Federation consists of documents of several levels: international (signed by the USSR or the Russian Federation); federal (Constitution, laws, codes - family, civil, etc.); government (decrees, orders); departmental (Ministry of Education); and regional (governmental and departmental).

Inclusive education today is also a central problem for psychologists, since they are responsible for the adaptation of students in the educational environment and the effectiveness of their learning process. Within the framework of pedagogical psychology, the effectiveness of inclusive education and a number of problems related to the special needs of trainees are considered. To begin with, inclusive education for trainees always includes overcoming obstacles, not only medico-pedagogical and «architectural», but also psychological (attitude of teachers, peers, overcoming complexes and feelings of inferiority by the learners themselves) and social (problems of attitude, imperfect system of assessing the achievements of the trainee, the entire social context of their being). Inclusive education is an active pedagogical model, aimed at all people with disabilities, regardless of their nature. In this sense inclusive education has not only educational, but also social functions [3]. The question of including trainees with special educational needs in the general flow of students has long ceased to be a medical issue, and has become more social, since inclusion is a social order of society, as it is aimed at creating conditions for the development of social skills, to achieve the set life goal, on self-actualization. Education provides individuals with special educational needs the opportunity to participate effectively in the life of a free society, to feel the possibility of using their abilities, to realize themselves as individuals. Within the educational system, social barriers are eliminated, a gradual and purposeful change in the culture, policy and practice of the work of educational institutions takes place.

The study of the effectiveness of inclusive education does not provide an unambiguous confirmation of its benefits. The data obtained from the surveys do not give a clear answer about the positive effect of inclusion, since the sample is inadequate (the number of students with special needs in universities is negligible). There are no data from relevant studies in our country and abroad, and when there is evidence, the confirmed result is only marginally positive [8, 9, 10]. At present, an important task is to study more thoroughly the possibility of psychological support of such students during the educational process, the role of teachers, mediators and moderators (assistant teachers, tutors) that would support optimal conditions for trainees with special needs, and, as a result, the development of new ones approaches to learning and strategies, taking into account not only their physical state, but also psychological features [7].

The main attention is paid to the development of human potential and the well-being of students in higher education institutions, which includes positive emotionality, satisfaction with life and the meaning of life, which, in general, are separate categories of the quality of life of this category of students. Psychological well-being and a high level of quality of life can stimulate individual potential and thereby contribute to better integration of the trainee in society. Consequently, the management of psychological well-being and various components of the quality of life is turning into a key moment in inclusive education [6]. The ultimate goal is to develop and implement inclusive educational and specialized strategies and to create a psychologically comfortable educational environment. Social space is important for any person, it should provide opportunities for its optimal development and self-actualization. The task of a psychologist in the context of inclusive education is to determine the effectiveness of the process of adaptation and development of communication and socialization skills, the development and correction of intellectual processes, the emotional and volitional component, the education of teachers and psychological counseling. And this is just the tip of the iceberg. The main goal of a psychologist in the context of inclusive education is to create conditions for the harmonious development of the personality.

The introduction of inclusive education in various education systems requires that the focus is on the development of psychological support strategies. An important issue is also the assessment of achievements, in this area different aspects of educational and psychological evaluation are considered in order to establish a holistic approach to the effectiveness of training [3]. Psychological support for the trainees is designed to solve the problems of the formal and informal learning environment, assistance here can be provided by youth centers and leaders of out-of-class work, with their support, the students are socialized with special educational needs, studying their emotional and behavioral problems for further correction and adaptation.

Psychological comfort in learning begins with emotional and physical well-being in the educational environment. The psychological comfort of the trainees with the problems of teaching and development presupposes support from both peers and teachers. Special training of psychologists-teachers and counselors-psychologists includes counseling, behavior management and educational activities. The main goal of psychological support in inclusive education is the creation of conditions for the harmonious development of the individual, that is, the development of emotional, intellectual and volitional components of the psyche of each trainee. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to organize effective psychological and pedagogical support to the process of inclusive education; ensuring an effective process of adaptation of trainees with speech, voice, vision, motor and mental disorders, as well as preventing their «falling out» from the social environment of the university; planning of the learning process (individual educational trajectories within the framework of the personified approach); individual counseling; increase the professional competence of teachers in the issues of training and development of trainees with special educational needs; the formation of tolerant peer relations.

Inclusive education also consists in providing quality additional educational services to students with a different range of educational needs and in developing a strategy for effective evaluation of learning outcomes. In addition, teachers should acquire additional skills that will include strategies to assist in managing learning and managing complex behaviors. When developing a learning management strategy, the following basic principles should be guided:

1. All trainees are able to learn;

2. All students have the right to education in the least restricted educational environment [7].

The best approach in inclusive education is focused on the situation in which the student gets an equal education in the least restricted educational environment, he participates in the learning process (both academically and socially), achieves success and understands what he has learned, the learning outcomes are objective are evaluated by the teacher.

Members of the teaching staff should have high qualifications and experience in the field of inclusive pedagogy in various aspects of special education. The learning experience should be oriented towards a theoretical understanding of special and inclusive education, it must necessarily be a place for individual educational trajectories as an essential tool for personalized education. Individual educational trajectories are developed in order to ensure high-quality individual training of each individual student to the level of competence in the field of professional activity. Based on the requirements of inclusive education, it is recommended to differentiate non-learners («external» differentiation), and educational material; to organize a unified educational space in such a way as to create a diverse environment in which each trainee realizes «how can», in accordance with his cognitive needs, has conditions for individual development - self-actualization («internal» differentiation). It is necessary to distinguish between the curriculum common to all and the educational program that takes into account the characteristics of the trainee. The desire for self-education is stimulated by the special organization of the material and the teacher's primary attention to the learning process. To do this, individual units are allocated units of training, given the opportunity to choose when performing tasks. Monitoring and evaluation are carried out not only for the result, but also for the learning process [1].

To do this, it is necessary to consider a complex of didactic means of providing the educational process, which is a system in which, in order to create conditions for pedagogically active interaction between the teacher and the trainee, means are included that help to take into account the individual characteristics of each trainee, meet various requirements for the level of mastering the teaching material, make the educational environment psychologically comfortable. Psychological well-being in the context of the quality of life can stimulate individual potential and thus contribute to the student's better integration into the educational environment. Consequently, the management of psychological well-being and, accordingly, the quality of life becomes a key moment in inclusive education [6].

Individual educational trajectories can be built in different ways, depending on the goals and objectives of education and allow to take into account the special educational needs of trainees. Individual educational trajectories are determined differently depending on the specifics of the tasks, especially the connection between the activity direction of the formation of an individual educational trajectory with new information technologies, which is seen in the use of multimedia and interactive technologies for building an open education system. Educational trajectories are defined as purposefully designed differentiated educational programs that provide the trainee with the position of the subject of development, selection and implementation of educational programs in the implementation of pedagogical support. Individual educational trajectories assume three areas of implementation: a substantive framework (variational educational programs and curricula that define a personalized approach); activity basis (interactive educational technologies); procedural basis (organizational aspects).

When composing an individual educational trajectory: the teacher creates a choice for the student, acting as a moderator, consultant and adviser. This takes into account the individual capabilities of the trainee; features of learning activities; preferred strategies, ways of working with educational material; features of mastering the educational material; types of educational activities; the most important thing for a student in drawing up an individual educational trajectory is to assess his capabilities, abilities, prospects, the efforts that he proposes to apply to study the material in order to achieve the planned result. The results of the movement along the educational trajectory can be assessed by focusing on the created product; acquired knowledge that is realized in the skills to operate them in a standard or creative situation, noting the formation of a different kind of skills - creative, intellectual, communicative, cognitive, etc. In the process of assessing the effectiveness of training, constant feedback is needed, which allows not only to correct the student's movement along trajectories (sometimes the trajectory itself), but also to evaluate the result of educational activity. The student himself can choose the methods, activities, forms of control. He programs his educational activity [2, p. 128].

Scientists treat individual educational trajectories as a certain sequence of elements of educational activity of each trainee for the realization of his own educational goals, corresponding to his abilities, abilities, motivations, carried out with the coordinating, organizing, advising activity of the teacher [3, 4, 5]. As a result of individual educational movement along such trajectories, each trainee offers ideas, develops models, constructs personal senses in connection with his capabilities. This requires the principle of productivity learning - the leading principle of personality-oriented learning [5].

Psychological support of inclusive education should be carried out in the following stages:

1. Psychodiagnostic stage, diagnosis of cognitive mental processes, emotional state of the trainee, level of anxiety, etc.

2. Preparation of documents, development and approval of individual educational trajectories with recommendations for teachers and students themselves, the formation of support groups and appointment of assistant teachers.

3. Development, psychological support is provided through the organization of work not only trainees with special needs, but also other students (the formation of tolerant consciousness). For each trainee a «road map» is developed taking into account its capabilities. It is necessary to ensure timely and constructive feedback. Individual educational trajectory is a personified realization of the personal potential of each student, regardless of the limitations of his abilities.

1. Aleksandrova E.A. Pedagogical support of senior pupils in the process of development and realization of individual educational trajectories. Diss. doctor of pedagogical sciences, Tyumen, 2006, 375 p.

2. Makarova E.A., Hakunova F.P., Makarov E.L. The role of individual educational trajectories in the formation of a psychologically comfortable educational environment. Bulletin of the ASU №3 (123), Maikop, 2013, p.126-136.

3. Osmuk L.A., Degtyareva V.V., Zhdanova I.V. Modeling of social and psychological support in the system of inclusive education in the university: from the experience of the Novosibirsk State Technical University. Psychological Science and Education, 2017. Vol. 22. № 1. p. 140-149.

4. Surtaeva N.N. Non-traditional pedagogical technologies: Paraccentric technology. Educational scientific manual. - Moscow - Omsk. 1974. p.22.

5. Yakimanskaya IS Person-oriented learning in a modern school. - M., 1996.

6. Gaydarov, Kalin (2014). Psychological wellbeing in the context of inclusive education. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications. Plovdiv- Bulgaria, Volume: 5 Issue: 3, pp.1-12.

7. Lindsay, Geoff. Educational psychology and the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. British Journal of Educational Psychology (2007), 77, 1–24.

8. Myklebust, J. O. (2002). Inclusion or exclusion? Transitions among special needs students in upper secondary education in Norway. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, 251–263.

9. Pirrie, A., Head, G., & Brna, P. (2006). Mainstreaming pupils with special educational needs. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Education Department.

10. Rogers, J. (1993, May). The inclusion revolution. Phi Delta Kappan Research Bulletin, (11), 1-6.

11. Sailor, W. (1989). The educational, social, and vocational integration of students with the most severe disabilities. In D. K. Lipsky & A. Gartner (Eds.), Beyond separate education Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, pp. 53-74.

12. Zigmond, N. (2003).. Where should students with disabilities receive special education services? Is one place better than another? Journal of Special Education, 37, 193–199.

Bibliographic reference

URL: www.science-sd.com/471-25276 (30.10.2020).